What is an Adjective in English grammar?
The adjective is an interesting lesson in English grammar. You know why? Because it has the ability to modify the other words of the parts of speech or change the meaning of the whole sentence. An adjective is a word that describes something about a noun or pronoun. Let us see what is the opinion of the scholars about Adjective in English?
J.C. Nesfield: An Adjective is a word used for qualifying (or adding something to) the meaning of a noun or pronoun.
Wren and Martin: An Adjective is a word used to add something to the meaning of a noun.
Now we can say Adjective is a word that usually describes the noun, pronoun, and in some cases other adjectives. Let us see some examples:
Adjectives are marked bold for easy identification:
- He is over-ambitious about the matter.
- She was more famous than at the present time.
- The boy is so clever.
- He is bad at English.
- Please give me one hundred dollars.
- The doll is looking so beautiful.
- Please make some delicious foods.
- Mr Adam is enough faithful in his wife.
- The baby looks attractive.
- I’m happy to see my final examination result.
- This was a wonderful journey.
- He is thankful to his friend for solving the problem.
Note: Every Adjective in the above sentences modify the noun and pronoun.
Types of Adjectives
- Proper Adjectives
- Adjectives of Quality
- Adjectives of Quantity
- Numeral Adjectives
- Demonstrative Adjectives
- Distributive Adjectives
- Interrogative Adjectives
- Possessive Adjectives
1. Proper Adjectives
You already heard about the Proper Noun. Proper Adjectives are related to proper nouns. Do you know why? Because Proper Nouns are the name of any individual person, country, city, days etc. And the Proper Adjectives are the adjective form of Proper Noun. For example: ‘America’ is a Proper noun but ‘American’ is a Proper Adjective. Similarly, Shakespeare is a Proper Noun but Shakespearean is a Proper Adjective. Some examples of proper adjectives are given below. Proper adjectives are marked as bold for easy identification:
- I love Bangladeshi people.
- They have met a Japanese company.
- He is reading Shakespearean comedy.
- She needs a Korean friend.
- The old man visits Christain Church.
2. Adjectives of Quality
An adjective that expresses the nature of a noun or used to express the shape, size and colour of a person, place and thing is called an adjective of quality. For example, He is a handsome boy. Here ‘handsome’ is an adjective of quality because it describes the quality or shape of the person. Some examples of the adjectives of quality are given below: Adjectives of quality are marked as bold for easy identification:
- I see a group of beautiful birds flying in the sky.
- She always loves a pink colour.
- He is enough tall to join the Army.
- They are too clever to defeat their enemies.
- You are looking so gorgeous.
3. Adjectives of Quantity
An adjective that used to indicate the amount or estimated amount of a noun or pronoun is called an adjective of quality. For example, I don’t have enough money to buy a car. Here enough is an adjective of quantity. Some examples of adjectives of quantity are given below: Adjectives of quantity are marked as bold for easy identification:
- I had many friends in my school life.
- He sold his bike and got some money by which he rents an apartment.
- You need much hard work to achieve success.
- A few numbers of people can reach their destination.
- Most of the boys absent in the class.
4. Numeral Adjectives
An adjective that describes the number of a noun or pronoun is called a numeral adjective. In short, the words indicating numbers are considered as numeral adjectives. These types of adjectives indicate quantity, order and position of nouns. For example, He has remained the first position in the class for many years. Here ‘first’ is the numeral adjective because it states the number of rank of the person. Some examples of adjectives of quantity are given below: Numeral adjectives are marked as bold for easy identification:
- We are three friends playing in the field.
- He is the last person to attend the meeting.
Numeral adjectives are of three kinds. They are:
- Definite Numeral Adjectives
- Indefinite Numeral Adjectives
- Distributive Numeral Adjectives
1. Definite Numeral Adjectives
Definite numeral adjectives are those adjectives which describe the exact number of people or things. Definite numeral adjectives are set of cardinals and ordinals numbers. For example:
Definite numeral adjectives are marked as bold for easy identification.
- He is the first boy in the class.
- I’m the second person to enter the room.
- She reads in class ten right now.
- The boy and his two friends reached on the campus.
- Nova claimed the third position in the recent ranking of the sports event.
2. Indefinite Numeral Adjectives
Indefinite numeral adjectives are those adjectives which don’t show the exact number in contrast to definite numeral adjectives. For example; Few, many, some, all, most etc. Indefinite numeral adjectives are marked as bold for easy identification.
- A few numbers of people join the meeting.
- Some of my friends are participating in a football match.
- Most of the students made the same mistake in the examination.
- I have seen many flowers in the garden.
- All of you should follow the code of conduct of the organisation.
3. Distributive Numeral Adjectives
Distributive numeral adjectives are those adjectives which describe a singular noun and a singular verb in a sentence. Distributive numeral adjectives are similar to distributive adjectives. For example; each, every, either, neither etc. Distributive numeral adjectives are marked as bold for easy identification.
- Every player in the field plays a good game.
- Please distribute the foods to each of them.
- Try to do your job either.
- Neither you nor your friend obeys your duties.
5. Demonstrative Adjectives
An adjective that indicates something or someone is called a demonstrative adjective. For example; this, that, these, those etc. Demonstrative adjectives are marked as bold for easy identification.
- This is the new bike I bought from the showroom.
- Everyone should follow that specific method.
- These boys play beautifully.
- Try to avoid those bad things which are harmful to human life.
6. Distributive Adjectives
An adjective that placed before a noun or pronoun and modifying it is called a distributive adjective. For example; any, each, either, neither etc. Distributive adjectives are marked as bold for easy identification.
- Any of you can find the solution to that problem.
- Each of the boys takes the opportunity.
- I cannot do this either.
- Neither she nor her friend attends the college.
- He doesn’t get any help from his teammate.
7. Interrogative Adjectives
Interrogative adjectives are similar to interrogative pronouns. An adjective that placed before a noun and modifies that noun, is called an interrogative adjective. For example; which, whose, what, where etc. Interrogative adjectives are marked as bold for easy identification.
- Which clothes did you want to buy?
- Whose book do you prefer most?
- What is the best and easiest ways to learn English?
- Where will you wish to take your lunch?
- Which writer is your favourite in English poetry?
8. Possessive Adjectives
An adjective that used to place before a noun and modifies the noun to demonstrate the possession or ownership to a particular person or thing is called a possessive adjective. In other words, possessive adjectives refer to the ownership of a person, place or thing. For example; my, your, his, her its, our yours, mine etc. Possessive adjectives are marked as bold for easy identification.
- Shakespeare is my favourite poet and playwright.
- This is your new home to spend the rest of your life.
- I wish to buy some gifts to celebrate his birthday.
- Ultimately, I’m able to see her real face.
- It’s really difficult to find its solution.
- This is our job to obey our parents.
- It’s the responsibility of yours to finish the program.
- I don’t believe its the mistake of mine.
Articles are also called adjectives. There are three articles (a, an, the) in English. Articles are classified into two categories. They are:
- Indefinite articles
- Definite articles
1. Indefinite articles
The article that defines a noun as non-specific is called the indefinite article. In short, ‘a’ and ‘an’ are called the indefinite article. For example:
- I have a laptop.
- This is an apple.
- I want to buy a new bike.
- He is a lazy person.
- She is an M.A.
2. Definite articles
The article that defines a noun as specific is called the indefinite article. In short, ‘the’ is called a definite article. For example:
- I see a bird flying in the sky.
- He wants to go to the United States.
- This is the beautiful garden I like most.
- Mr Khopen decides to tell the story in our class.
- She had the strength to fulfil her dreams.
It is very important to learn Adjective in proper and easy ways. This lesson will help to understand what is an adjective in English grammar including definitions, types and examples. However, just try to read carefully.