Types of Sentences
Many of us know that sentences are divided into many categories. We can divide sentences into three types according to their structure. They are; simple, complex and compound. Before knowing the definitions of all these types of sentences, we need to learn more about clauses and phrases. Let us see the definitions and examples of clauses and phrases in English grammar.
A clause consists of a group of words that contains a subject and a finite verb. To get a clear conception about clauses let us see some examples:
- I obey my responsibility.
- My parents love me so much.
- I have a daughter.
- He is my favourite friend.
- Austen cooks delicious food.
Note: All the sentences contain a subject and a finite verb.
Types of Clauses
Clauses are of three types. They are:
- Principal clause
- Subordinate clause
- Co-ordinate clause
1. Principal Clause
A clause that has independent meaning and can be used independently is called a principal clause. For example:
- I know the boy very well.
- He sees a bird.
- She goes to the market.
- Reema felt sick.
- I love fast food.
2. Subordinate Clause
A clause that does not have any independent meaning and cannot be used independently is called a subordinate clause. A subordinate clause depends on other clauses to complete its meaning. For example:
- Though he is poor, he is honest.
- I know a boy who is a brilliant student.
- I had a pen which I lost.
- He reads a book though he doesn’t understand the meaning.
- I love my mother who loves me too.
All the underlined clauses are subordinate clauses because they do not have independent meanings and depend on principal clauses to complete their meanings. A subordinate clause consists of a clause marker.
3. Co-ordinate Clause
A clause that contains two principal clause by joining a conjunction (and, but, or) is called a co-ordinate clause. For example:
- I have a friend and we stay together in the hostel.
- He is good at English but he is not good enough at mathematics.
- Study hard or you will fail in the examination.
- She knew a person and the person was a doctor.
- I’m playing cricket and my brother is watching the match.
All of the sentences contain two principal clause by joining appropriate conjunctions.
A phrase consists of a group of words that does not have any subject and a finite verb. A phrase does not have any independent meaning. Rather it’s a part of a clause to serve as a meaningful unit. Let us see some examples:
- Being a rational person, he understands the matter.
- Walking in the street, he has reached his home.
- I love my home decoration.
- He is my brother’s friend.
- Looking at the window, I see a beautiful bird.
Note: All the underlined phrases contain without a subject and a finite verb.
Simple, Complex and Compound Sentences
We already knew that sentences are divided into three types according to their structure. They are:
- Simple sentence
- Complex sentence
- Compound Sentence
A sentence that contains one subject and one finite verb and has independent meaning is called a simple sentence. A simple sentence consists of one principal clause. For example:
- The boy reads a novel.
- He sings a melodious song.
- She loves her mother.
- Mr Abraham came here to attend the meeting.
- Jony starts a business a few months ago.
A sentence that contains one principal clause and one or more subordinate clause is called a complex sentence. For example:
- I know a boy who is good at English.
- He is working hard so that he can make a bright future.
- Rony had a car which he bought from the market.
- Though Selina was nervous, she attend in the debate.
- When I was a child, I played a lot of rural games.
A compound sentence contains two principal clauses or co-ordinates clauses with a coordinating conjunction (and, but, or etc.). For example:
- I am a teacher and my brother is an athlete.
- He is studying and his friend is doing a part-time job.
- Working hard or you will fail to make a bright future.
- Rima was a good student but she failed the examination.
- You can read the story or you may leave it.