8 Parts of Speech
In this lesson, we will analyse the ‘8 Parts of Speech’ in English with their definitions, types and examples. Parts of Speech is the part and parcel of English grammar. We can’t think a sentence without using Parts of Speech. There are 8 Parts of Speech in English. However, if you want to learn English, you must have enough knowledge about Parts of Speech. Otherwise, it is difficult to learn English grammar more accurately. Let us know what is the definition of ‘Parts of Speech’ in English grammar? Just follow the below sentence.
- Wow! I see a beautiful bird flying in the sky
In this sentence, you will get a clear picture of the 8 Parts of Speech in English.
Every word underlined in the sentence is called Parts of Speech.
Definition of Parts of Speech by Different Scholars
J.C. Nesfield: The different kinds of words are called Parts of Speech.
Wren & Martin: Words are divided into different kinds of classes, called Parts of speech, according to their use; that is, according to the work they do in the sentence.
Types of Parts of Speech
There are 8 types of Parts of Speech in English grammar. They are:
Any naming word (person, place, thing or idea) is called a Noun. Sometimes many students think a noun is the name of a person or place only but it can be a thing, idea, feeling etc. Let us see some examples of nouns; John, boy, country, United Kingdom, New York City, Cow, army, iron, honesty etc. Nouns are underlined in the below sentences for easy identification:
- John is a good boy.
- The United Kingdom is my favourite country.
- My brother lives in New York City.
- The Cow is roaming in the field.
- The army protects its homeland.
- Iron is very useful for human life.
- Honesty is a good virtue.
There are five kinds of nouns in English. They are:
- Proper noun
- Common noun
- Material noun
- Abstract noun.
A word which is placed instead of a noun is called a Pronoun. If we use a single noun for every sentence then it doesn’t look good. For examples: James goes to meet with his friends. James is enjoying the party. James recollects his old memories. Here we use a single noun for every sentence that’s why it looks weird. But if we use the pronoun ‘he’ for the last two sentences instead of ‘James’ then it seems pretty well.
That’s why we need to use a pronoun instead of a noun. Let us see some examples of pronouns; he, she, they, I, we, it etc. Pronouns are underlined in the below sentences for easy identification:
- He is going to market to buy a t-shirt.
- She plays with her classmate.
- I am the only man who understands the matter.
- We are going to arrange a free campaign.
- It was considered that he would be won the trophy.
There are nine kinds of pronouns. They are:
- Personal pronoun
- Possessive pronoun
- Reflexive pronoun
- Demonstrative pronoun
- Indefinite pronoun
- Relative pronoun
- Interrogative pronoun
- Distributive pronoun
- Reciprocal pronoun.
A word that which is used to describe a noun or pronoun is called an Adjective. In other words, we can say an adjective usually modifies a noun or a pronoun. For example; happy, good, clever, intelligent, lazy, large etc. Adjectives are underlined in the below sentences for easy identification.
- He looks like he is happy now.
- They had been playing good cricket at a time.
- Don’t try to be more clever.
- Undoubtedly he is an intelligent person.
- This animal is so lazy.
- I saw a large building.
There are two kinds of adjectives. They are:
- Attributive adjective
- Predicative adjective.
A word that expresses an action or doing something is called a Verb. For example; am, is, are, was, were, have, has had, can, could, shall, should, will, would, go, play, read, want, sing etc. Verbs are underlined in the below sentences for easy identification.
- I am good at English.
- He is a good boy.
- They are playing in the field.
- She was suffering from a fever.
- These two boys were going to catch fish.
- I have a beautiful doll.
- They have gone to this place.
- He has done his job successfully.
- My sister had a sweet dog.
- He can do this work.
- You could attend this meeting.
- His father shall go to the field.
- You should be attentive to your study.
- She will go to meet her friends.
- He would claim a better job.
- Read the book carefully.
- The boy wants to sing a song.
There are four kinds of verbs. They are:
- Auxiliary verb
- Principal verb
- Transitive verb
- Intransitive verb
A word which is used to add something to the meaning or modify a verb, an adjective or another adverb is called an Adverb. For example; about, after, before, fast, slowly etc. Adverbs are underlined in the below sentences for easy identification:
- Tell me something about you.
- Pass the book after him.
- He has done his task before the boy.
- They want to run fast.
- The tortoise walks slowly.
There are three types of Adverbs. They are:
- Simple adverb
- Relative adverb
- Interrogative adverb
A word which is placed before a noun or a pronoun or a noun-equivalent to show its relation to any other word of the sentence is called a Preposition. For example; on, in, to, for, with, within, above over etc. Prepositions are underlined in the below sentences for easy identification:
- He stores his books on his bookshelf.
- They have been playing football in the field since morning.
- He goes to market for buying some clothes.
- She is dancing with her mates.
- The plane was flying above my head.
- He couldn’t succeed in this plan over the years.
There are three kinds of prepositions. They are:
- Simple preposition
- Double preposition
- Compound preposition
A word which is usually used for joining one word to another word, one word to a clause or one sentence to another sentence is called a Conjunction. For example; and, but, or, if, though, than, since so–that, as soon as, either–or, neither–nor etc. Conjunctions are underlined in the below sentences for easy identification:
- Janny and Jammy are good friends.
- He is rich but cheap minded.
- Please read more or you will fail in the exam.
- They will be good doctors if they work hard.
- He could attend the meeting though he had enough time.
- The boy is tall than the girl.
- It has been raining since morning.
- The old man is so poor that he can’t buy enough foods.
- He left the place as soon as they came.
- Either Jack or John will do the task.
- She will neither come here nor her friend.
A word which is used to express a short sudden emotion or excitement is called an Interjection. For example; hurrah! alas! oops! etc. Interjections are underlined in the below sentences for easy identification:
- Hurrah! We won the match.
- Alas! She is no more.
- Oops! They can’t do this job correctly.
There are three kinds of Interjections. They are:
- Volitive Interjection
- Emotive Interjection
- Cognitive Interjection.
To sum up, we may say without parts of speech we can’t make a sentence. These 8 parts of speech are the fundamental parts of English grammar. Please share this article to your friends so that they also can get a useful guideline about these 8 parts of speech with definitions and examples.
Parts of Speech Quiz