The Adjective is an exciting lesson in English grammar. Do you know why? Because it can modify the other words of the parts of speech or change the meaning of the whole sentence. Adjectives are usually words that depict the qualities of nouns.
Definition of an Adjective
An adjective is a word that describes something about a noun or a pronoun. There are nine types of adjectives in English grammar, and let us see the opinions of the scholars regarding Adjectives in English.
J.C. Nesfield: An Adjective is a word used for qualifying (or adding something to) the meaning of a noun or pronoun.
Wren and Martin: An Adjective is a word used to add something to the meaning of a noun.
Now we can say an Adjective is a word that usually describes a noun or a pronoun, and in some cases, other adjectives. Let us see some examples:
Adjectives are marked bold for easy identification:
- He is over-ambitious about the matter.
- She was more famous than at present.
- The boy is so clever.
- He is terrible at English.
- Would you please give me one hundred dollars?
- The doll looks so beautiful.
- Would you please make some delicious foods?
- Mr. Adam is faithful enough to his wife.
- The baby looks attractive.
- I’m happy to see my final examination result.
- It was an incredible journey.
- He is thankful to his friend for solving the problem.
Note: Every Adjective in the above sentences modifies the nouns and pronouns.
Types of Adjectives in English
There are nine types of Adjectives in English grammar. They are:
- Proper Adjectives
- Adjectives of Quality
- Adjectives of Quantity
- Numeral Adjectives
- Demonstrative Adjectives
- Distributive Adjectives
- Interrogative Adjectives
- Possessive Adjectives
You have already heard about Proper nouns, and proper Adjectives are related to proper nouns. Do you know why? Because Proper Nouns are the name of any person, country, city, days, etc. And Proper Adjectives are the adjective form of Proper nouns.
For example: ‘America’ is a Proper noun, but ‘American’ is a Proper Adjective. Similarly, Shakespeare is a Proper Noun, but Shakespearean is a Proper Adjective.
Some examples of proper adjectives are given below. Proper adjectives are marked as bold for easy identification:
- I love Bangladeshi people.
- They have met a Japanese company.
- He is reading Shakespearean comedy.
- She needs a Korean friend.
- The older man visits the Christian Church.
Adjectives of Quality
An adjective that expresses the nature of a noun or is used to express the shape, size, and color of a person, place, and thing is called an adjective of quality.
For example; He is a handsome boy. Here ‘handsome’ is an adjective of quality because it describes the quality or shape of the person.
Some examples of the adjectives of quality are given below: Adjectives of quality are marked as bold for easy identification:
- I see a group of beautiful birds flying in the sky.
- She always loves pink color.
- He is tall enough to join the Army.
- They are too clever to defeat their enemies.
- You are looking so gorgeous.
Adjectives of Quantity
An adjective used to indicate the amount or estimated amount of a noun or a pronoun is called an adjective of quality. For example, I don’t have enough money to buy a car, and here enough is an adjective of quantity.
Some examples of adjectives of quantity are given below: Adjectives of quantity are marked as bold for easy identification:
- I had many friends in my school life.
- He sold his bike and got some money by which he rents an apartment.
- It would be best if you had much hard work to achieve success.
- A few numbers of people can reach their destination.
- Most of the boys were absent from the class.
An adjective that describes the number of a noun or pronoun number is called a numeral adjective. In short, the words indicating numbers are considered as numeral adjectives. These adjectives indicate the quantity, order, and position of nouns.
For example; He has remained in the first position in the class for many years. Here ‘first’ is the numeral adjective because it states the number of rank of the person.
Some examples of adjectives of quantity are given below: Numeral adjectives are marked as bold for easy identification:
- We are three friends playing in the field.
- He is the last person to attend the meeting.
Numeral adjectives are of three kinds. They are:
- Definite Numeral Adjectives
- Indefinite Numeral Adjectives
- Distributive Numeral Adjectives
Definite Numeral Adjectives
Definite numeral adjectives are those types of adjectives that describe the exact number of people or things. Definite numeral adjectives are a set of cardinals and ordinal numbers. For example:
|Cardinals number||Ordinals numbers|
Definite numeral adjectives are marked as bold for easy identification.
- He is the first boy in the class.
- I’m the second person to enter the room.
- She reads in class ten right now.
- The boy and his two friends reached the campus.
- Nova claimed the third position in the recent ranking of the sports event.
Indefinite Numeral Adjectives
Indefinite numeral adjectives are those adjectives that don’t show the exact number in contrast to definite numeral adjectives—for example; Few, many, some, all, most, etc.
Indefinite numeral adjectives are marked as bold for easy identification.
- A few numbers of people join the meeting.
- Some of my friends are participating in a football match.
- Most of the students made the same mistake in the examination.
- I have seen many flowers in the garden.
- All of you should follow the code of conduct of the organization.
Distributive Numeral Adjectives
Distributive numeral adjectives are those adjectives that describe a singular noun and a singular verb in a sentence. Distributive numeral adjectives are similar to distributive adjectives. For example, each, every, either, neither, etc.
Distributive numeral adjectives are marked as bold for easy identification.
- Every player on the field plays a good game.
- Please distribute the food to each of them.
- Try to do your job either.
- Neither you nor your friend obeys your duties.
An adjective that indicates something or someone is called a demonstrative adjective—for example, this, that, these, those, etc.
Demonstrative adjectives are marked as bold for easy identification.
- This is the new bike I bought from the showroom.
- Everyone should follow that specific method.
- These boys play beautifully.
- Try to avoid those bad things which are harmful to human life.
An adjective used to indicate each person or thing individually is called a distributive adjective. For example, any, each, either, neither, etc.
Distributive adjectives are marked as bold for easy identification.
- Any of you can find the solution to that problem.
- Each of the boys takes the opportunity.
- I cannot do this either.
- Neither she nor her friend attends college.
- He doesn’t get any help from his teammate.
Interrogative adjectives are similar to interrogative pronouns. An adjective is used to place before a noun and modifies that noun is called an interrogative adjective. For example, which, whose, what, where, etc.
Interrogative adjectives are marked as bold for easy identification.
- Which clothes did you want to buy?
- Whose book do you prefer most?
- What is the best and easiest ways to learn English?
- Where will you wish to take your lunch?
- Which writer is your favourite in English poetry?
An adjective used to place before a noun and modifies the noun to demonstrate the possession or ownership to a particular person or thing is called a possessive adjective.
In other words, possessive adjectives refer to the ownership of a person, place, or thing—for example, my, your, his, her, its, our yours, mine, etc.
Possessive adjectives are marked as bold for easy identification.
- Shakespeare is my favorite poet and playwright.
- This is your new home to spend the rest of your life in.
- I wish to buy some gifts to celebrate his birthday.
- Ultimately, I’m able to see her natural face.
- It’s my challenging job to find a solution.
- This is our job to obey our parents.
- It’s your responsibility to finish the program.
- I don’t believe it’s a mistake of mine.
Articles are also called adjectives. There are three articles (a, an, the) in English. Articles are classified into two categories. They are:
- Indefinite Articles
- Definite Articles
The article that defines a noun as non-specific is called the indefinite article. In short, ‘a’ and ‘an’ are called indefinite articles. For example:
- I have a laptop.
- This is an apple.
- I want to buy a new bike.
- He is a lazy person.
- She is an M.A.
The article that defines a noun as specific is called the indefinite article. In short, ‘the’ is called a definite article. For example:
- I see a bird flying in the sky.
- He wants to go to the United States.
- This is the beautiful garden I like most.
- Mr. Khopen decides to tell the story in our class.
- She had the strength to fulfill her dreams.
It is essential to learn Adjective in proper and accessible ways. This lesson will help us understand the nine adjectives in English grammar, including definitions and examples. However, try to read carefully.